The abalone belongs to the genus Haliotidae. From old days, it had ruled as king of the shells and sometimes appeared in ancient documents as a mysterious object and an object of envy.
The abalone is qualitatively different from other marine products in nourishment and flavor. So, without it, the old Royal cooking couldn't be explained.
At the Chinese medicine, the abalone was called 'Suk Gyeol Myeong' and printed in 'Myeong's Byeol Lok(the records of the famous doctors)'. There are records related to its virtues that it can cure the optic atrophy and that its constant use can make a body lighten and can be obtained the keen sense of sight and hearing. So, in above-mentioned book, is called 'Cheon li Guang(the light of a thousand miles)', 'Gyeol Myeong Ja(Cassia tora L)', and 'Gu Gong Ja'.
In 'Gui Hap Chong Seo', the breathing hole of its shell was used as a medicine to lighten the eyes. In 'Hae Yak Bon Ron' written by 'Lee Sun', it put down that it could cure the gender-blind of the fever of lungs, cataracts, or the disease of the lung.
Also, 'Jin Yeon's Gueo' or 'Jin Jak's Gueo' of the old classical cookbooks, mentioned its use in the Royal dishes and its cooking appears in other documents.
The abalone dishes have been a very precious from old times to today.
Proverbs that the abalone is good for the recovery after illness or for vitality might show the nutritional value of the abalone. There is arginine, which is a kind of amino acids in the abalone. Its content is 1100mg and it is contained much more than in other food. The arginine is well known to be related to sexual power
It is also called SeomGe. Its name was HaeGu(海毬) in old literatures. Other name of SeongGe in Korea is chestnut bur shellfish. Especially anthocidaris crassispina was called YulGuHap(栗毬蛤) in
Its body is the shape of ball, half ball, heart or tray, and it has no arms. The body surface is covered with epidermis that has cilium. Inside it has thick spicule that contain calcium carbonate, and are regularly arranged. It forms hard shells, which interlock.
Spicule consists of 5 lines of ambulacral zone without spines and 5 lines of interambulacral zone with long spines.
The long spines of interambulacral zone are movable, so Echinoidea moves with these spines and its tube-foot. Needle-like spines or round spines on the body surface have sense.
The mouth is in the bottom of body and anus is on the topside of body, or backside. Mouth region is especially called WeBuGu(圍口部), whose spines become teeth. Its inside has strong chewing teeth, called Aristotle's lantern, which are compounds of calcium. Anus region has 5 genital plates and 1 madreporite. Each genital plate has one opened genital atrium.
Their digestive canal is long and simple. It turns in coelom and is connected with paunch. Food depends on their kinds, but they mostly feed on aquatic animal that are stuck on marine algae or a rock.
It is a gonochorism. 5 orange ovaries and milk-while testis are inside of interambulacral zone.
Echinoidea has usually been divided into two subgroups, regular echinoids, with nearly regular symmetry and irregular echinoids with altered symmetry at the angle of view.
Typical regular echinoid is anthocidaris crassispina and irregular echinoid is Schizaster lacunosus. There are about 900 kinds in the world and about 30 kinds live in Korea.
Some kinds like Toxopneustes pileolus has spines with poison bag on the surface. Once its spines puncture human skin, it is easily broken and pulled out with difficultly. It causes pain, redness and swelling. In serious cases, people feel cold and heart rate increases.
Sexual gland of anthocidaris crassispina, Toxopneustes pileolus, and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus emit unique smell. So people eat them in the raw or pickled sea urchin. Abundant anthocidaris crassispina live in the east sea of Korea, so it is main marine products.
Sea Cucumber is compared to Ginseng of the sea. It really contains saponin that Ginseng has.
Long shape of sea cucumber like cucumber is delicious. So it is interesting that sea cucumber can be explained cucumber of the sea.
Sea Cucumber is strong enough to survive and revive the rest of the body when it is cut into two pieces. This strong power is connected to good nutritive value. Calcium and phosphorus in Sea cucumber keeps ideal rate. Its abundant calcium is good for teeth and bone structure formation and blood coagulation, and iron is also abundant in it. Sea cucumber has holotain that is known for destroying bacterium, preventing blood clotting and preventing cancer.
Chinese medicine says it protects blood and kidneys, supplement purity and energy and is good for ulcers. But it also advices if people with cold energy in body eat raw sea cucumber, they could suffer from diarrhea.
Japanese eat pickled sea cucumber and Chinese use dried sea cucumber in making food.
Dried sea cucumber has higher nutritive value than raw one. Because sea cucumber shrinks to 1/20 of original size when it is dried, you should change water about 5 times when you soak it.
It is good to make sea cucumber soup with bamboo shoot and sea cucumber that was soaked for one day.
Chop sea cucumber and bamboo shoot in edible size, and slice garlic, stone-leek and ginger. Put oil in a pan and put garlic, stone-leek and ginger for spice. Then put sea cucumber and bamboo shoot and fry them. When cooked, season with various flavorings and add meat stock. Finally put starch in boiling meat stock. Then you can taste good sea cucumber soup.
It is also called "ascidian". The body length and girth of big one is 18cm and 26cm respectively but usually they are smaller than this. Color is usually red or orange but sometimes dark brown or white. Trunk surface includes many projections; the projections on ascidian taken on Korean east coast called "Jumunjin" having small teat shape while the projections on ascidian caught on Korean south coast are called "Yeosu", finger shape. The in and out openings open over the trunk upper end so seawater comes in and go out through this part.
Ascidian eat plankton or various organic matters mixed in turbid seawater through a basket shaped branchial basket just under the hole where seawater enters.
The root shaped projection is beneath the trunk and ascidian live clinging to other objects using this projection.
As hermaphrodites ascidian embark on a breeding season just around October in East sea and fertilize in water after spouting egg and sperm. Apendikulraria (ascidian tadpole), as a larva, after two days pass since being fertilized, wander in the water and if get into 3rd day, start metamorphosis sticking to other object. One month later, Apendikulraria (ascidian tadpole) begin to grow from about 3mm and grow about 10 cm bulk in 2 years. This is distributed throughout Korea and Japan and, in case of Korea, widely distributed from Chodo-ri in East coast to Seongsan-po in Jeju-do. There is the place to raise ascidian used for food.
Sora[=A turban shell]
Height of shell is about 10cm and diameter of shell is 8 cm. Shell is thick, solid, and circular cone shape for Natap, while, Nacheung is 6 floor consisting of each inflated layer.
Layer usually enclose around 5 thick Nareuk and thin reuk occurs.
Thorn shape projection of pipe shape occurs under shoulder and hull in downward Nacheung, and the number of thorn shape projections in the neighborhood of 10 within 1 Nacheung, there is an individual difference while there may be individuals without thorn around inland sea or gulf.
Also, thorn is the open for fore-end semi-tubular shape at the edge of mouth but become tubular shape in getting closed along with growth. Growth vein is thin and packed board shape. Roughly, about 1 growth vein is made in a day. The green brown shell surface usually has other life forms clinging to it. The inside of mouth shows pearlescent luster. Lid is thick calcium, and outward appearance get swollen, winding line, therefore, is thickly with small thorn. The inside is flat and brown leather-skin. A brown tender leg is divided on either side of a central groove, and it crawls by moving these alternately. Male genital gland is yellow and female genital gland is white.
As a genochorism, female lays green eggs in the water from May-August and the male emits semen. Fertilization is done in the water. A turban shell is a nocturnal animal and eats brown algae. A turban shell lives on the rock between ebb area and 20 M, the depth of water. Shell becomes material of a shellfish workmanship or button and lean meat is used for food. A turban shell is distributed in Korea southern coast and Japanese southern coast. A turban shell, as a high protein food, containing minerals such as calcium, iron content and vitamin A etc., is as valuable as abalone in terms of taste or nutrition.
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