Barley along with rice has been a key source of Korean dish. Barley substitutes nutrition for rice because it contains various kinds of vitamins and inorganic-essential amino acid. It also increases resistivity against stress which makes it popular health food among customers in the city.
With lessening level of cholesterol, barley controls fatness by restraining accumulation of body fat, prevents heart disease and increases stamina. It especially controls an attack of colon cancer. Barley contains dietary fibers that play effective and important function in human body and that is 74% more than that of rice and 37% more than that of wheat. A new breed of Chalsalbori that currently has been cultivated is improved by Rural Development Administration with sticky Korean barley. It stimulates appetite of people who get tired of rice with its stickiness and gloss.
People can cook rice with Chalsalbori without pre-steaming it; therefore it becomes people's favorite meal. Chalsalbori prevents constipation and helps digestion by helping bowel movement and increasing amount of good bacteria because it contains many dietary fibers. It also contains more protein that helps to maintain body strength than other grains, and ingredients that decreases level of cholesterol.
Chalsalbori has less saturated fat and carbohydrate so it is good for children, pregnant women or people who have to take low calories food because of diabetes. Barley contains 5times more fibers than rice, thus it is slow of digestion. Although it contains many proteins, however it has less albumen. The taste of barley is not as good as rice and is puckery because barley contains tannin related materials. The color of barley is relatively dark because of the materials. In spite of factors previously listed, barley helps bowel movement and treats constipation and aid replacement of glucide with vitamin B that rice lacks. Barley has been used in many different ways besides being cooked as a main dish.
Dry malt is made from watering barley and its sprout and helps digestion with many enzymes that convert starch to sugar. By function of converting starch to sugar, dry malt is used in making wheat-gluten syrup and Gamju (a sweet drink made out of rice). It is also used as digestive because it strengthens the five viscera and has efficacy in stopping diarrhea. In addition, drink made by boiling down dry malt with licorice is good for children who have many boils on face.
Natural dietary fibers in barley
A dietary treatment is important to prevent adult diseases and recently demands of foods that have a function of preventing common diseases and development of natural foods are increasing.
The research on 'function of foods' has been conducted in Japan since 1980's and in 1991, they began to operate a license system of 'specific healthful food.' In the United States, National Cancer Institute and FDA have been supporting the similar research and has introduced a concept of 'Designer food' in 1989. Korea adopted and defined concepts of 'special nutritious food' and 'health aid food' in food process since 1994.
Health foods consumed for prevention of treatment for diseases should have functional factors that protecting the vitals, preventing or recovering diseases, and controlling physical rhythm and aging. Dietary fibers are acknowledged as main functional factor in case of barley and oat.
Constipation, overweight, diabetes, high blood pressure and colon cancer are highly related to ingestion of dietary fibers. Especially solubility dietary fiber drops level of cholesterol contained in blood and barley and oat are well-known for containing plenty of β-glucan, a kind of solubility dietary fiber. β-glucan is an important ingredient that constitutes endosperm and the cell wall of aleurone in grain.
Cholesterol controls regeneration of carbohydrate, compounding vitamins and sex hormone and circulation of blood, however it induces adult disease like heart disease(for example, sclerosis of the arteries), high blood pressure and diabetes if level of cholesterol is too high by over-production or over-ingestion.
A dietary treatment is important for people living in modern society and level of cholesterol in blood vessel or liver can be reduced and adult disease like high blood pressure can be prevented by having foods that contain plenty of dietary fibers and by avoiding foods that contain high cholesterol or saturated fat. Recent research shows that barley controls accumulation of cholesterol by blocking synthesis of cholesterol in liver and absorbing and excreting ingested saturated fat.
Barley, the effective treatment of diabetes
People used to think barley as a symbol of poverty and considered it as low quality food. However, barely treats constipation with its contained fibers, helps digestion and controls aging by propagation of bacteria in vowel and compounding of pantothenic acid.
It also lowers level of cholesterol by absorbing impact thus it is very effective on diabetes. Pantothenic acid produces mucosa in stomach and vowel and prevent ulcer caused by stress or digestive fluid.
Barley also contains plenty of vitamin B2 that stimulates growth by increase appetite, neutralizes the poisonous effects and prevents cancer, and B6 that helps operation of brain and increases level of concentration. Therefore, barley is good for children, teenagers and others who suffer from diabetes, high blood pressure and the liver trouble.
Cropping system of Chalsalbori
☞ Condition of high quality seed: high germination rate(more than 70%), no disease and pest injury and good and homogeneous grain filling
☞ Seed disinfection: Bitajiram 2.5g/ Treat 1kg of seeds(pest control of smut and stripe disease)
☞ Rice field drainage and harvested rice straw treatment
☞ Optimum season for seeding: Middle/late of October(5-6 leaves of main leaf before wintering), Soil PH: 6.0~7.0 (calcium hydroxide 100~150kg/10a)
☞ Depth of seeding: 2.5~3cm(adjust depth of rotary in about 5cm)
☞ Quantity of seeding: Naked barley 11~13kg/10a
☞ Quantity of fertilization: Compound fertilizer for barley(10-16-10) 40kg/applicate additional fertilizer in mid-late February(element 10kg/10a): growth regenerator
☞ Weed control
☞ Maintenance of drainage canal: Prevention of excess-moisture injury and freezing-anther-viviparous germination
☞ Counter-plan after seeding: mulching organic matter and preventing excess-moisture injury by well-marinating drainage canal.
☞ Drought in spring: Working on spring cooler and irrigation of drainage canal
☞ Chlorosis caused by excess-moisture injury: Element 2%(element 400g in 18ℓof water) 100ℓ/10a
☞ Pest control of disease and pest injury: Scabs and powdery mildew
☞ Harvest: 35~40 days after heading
☞ Storage: Apply fumigant(Epihyum) when store → pest control of rice weevil
Chalsalbori and cooking
Barley is used in cooking rice, sweet drink made from rice, nu-ruk (kind of barm), mag-ggeol-li (traditional Korean alcohol), hot pepper paste, su-je-bi (clear soup with wheat flakes in it), dry malt and tea.
▶ Dish using barley
☞ Boiled barely and rice - Ingredients: Rice, Barley(flattened barley, 2 percent barley)
1. Soak barley and rice in the water for 30minutes and then pick them out water after washing them.
2. Lay barely in the bottom of an iron pot and put rice on the laid barley. Pour water that is less than cooking rice. Cook with mix of barely and rice or just with plain barley. Barely is distinguished as whole barley, flattened barley and 2% barley. For whole barley, cook with rice after hard-boiling it, and for flattened barley or 2% barley, cook after washing and no pre-boiling is necessary.Boiled barley goes well with yeol-mu kimch and bean-paste pot stew and it is one of the best summer season foods.
Boiled barley doesn't digest as well as rice but it has become popular because of its function of preventing overweight, diabetes, constipation and beriberi.
☞ Clear soup with barley flakes - Ingredients: 2cups of raw barley powder, 1cup of flour, 30g of anchovy, 3 pieces of fragrant mushroom, 1/3 head of Chinese cabbage, 1/2 of big green onion, 1 red pepper, 1Tbs of chopped garlic, and some salt
1. Knead sifted raw barley powder and flour with hot salted water. Covers the dough with a wet cloth to keep it moisture.
2. Slice the cabbage with 4cm-long and slopingly slice the red-pepper and the green onion.
3. Take off head and viscera of the anchovies and then boil them with enough water. Put thin sliced fragrant mushroom into the boiled anchovy soup.
4. Make flakes with the dough by hands and put them into the anchovy soup. Put the cabbage when boiling.
5. Lastly, put the chopped garlic, the green onion and the stir fried red-pepper and salt the soup.
☞ Barley-bracken rice - Ingredients: 2cups of flattened barley, 1cup of non-glutinous rice, 100g of bracken, 1/2 of green pumpkin, seasoning for the bracken(1tbs of soy sauce, 2tbs of chopped green onion, 1tbs of chopped garlic, sesame, sesame oil and salt), seasoned soy sauce(2Tbs of soy sauce, 2tbs of sugar, 1tbs of powdered red pepper, 1Tbs of chopped green onion and 2tbs of chopped garlic)
1. Soak barley and rice in the water for 30minutes and then pick them out water after washing them.
2. Clean the brackens and slice it with 4~5cm-long. Stir fry them after seasoning.
3. Thin-slice the green pumpkin with round-shape.
4. Cook rice and barley and put the seasoned bracken and the sliced green pumpkin into the well-steamed rice and barley. Stir them evenly with a wooden rice scoop.
5. Serve it with seasoned soy sauce.
☞Barley cake >Origins of barley Gae-ddeok (a kind of barley cake)... The main ingredient of gae-ddeok is barley bran. But the Koreans called it barely-dinggi. Dinggi is a white powder looks like flour and it generates from pounding rice or barley in a mill. However, it was hard to find rice-dinggi because it was very rare in every spring and there's no one to pound rice long times ago. Various kinds of snacks exist nowadays but the barley gae-ddeok was the only snack people can have in old days.
People cook gae-ddeok by sifting barley-dinggi and steaming it or mugwort-teoluri by boiling mugwart with barley-dinggi. Coarse dinggi was used in making porridge for cows with fodder. Long times ago, people ate barley cake just because they were starving, but now they eat it because it is a health food containing many fibers. Especially it is famous as diet food.
People kneaded fine dinggi with adding some saccharin after sifted warm dinggi that just came out of a mill when steaming the cake. And soda must be added every time the cake was cooked because it raised the cake making the cake look larger. Place hemp cloth inside a lid of a rice pot, lay the dough of barley-dinggi, close the lid and steam it. This is how people make barley-gaeddeok. Gaeddoek's color turns into black like excrement of dog after steamed. In addition, people cook porridge with barley long times ago.
>Barley cake and health Barley gae-ddeok contains plenty of fibers so it is not fattening nor causing adult disease; thus it is a good diet food. It is better than rice for children, pregnant women and people having diabetes. Barley contains 5times more fibers than rice, thus it is slow of digestion.
Although it contains many proteins, however it has less albumen. The taste of barley is not as good as rice and is puckery because barley contains tannin related materials. The color of barley is relatively dark because of the materials. In spite of factors previously listed, barley helps bowel movement and treats constipation and aid replacement of glucide with vitamin B that rice lacks.
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