(Historical Relic No. 135) is Korea's first artificial pond located
in the southern attached house of a royal palace which King Mu of
Baekje made for Princess Seonhwa. Based on the record of 『Samguksagi』,
it is called Gungnamji. According to Samguksagi, "A pond
was dug up to the south of the palace, water was irrigated for miles
to plant willows, and an island immigating Mt. Bangjangseon, one
of three mountains of wizards in Chinese mythology, was made in
the center" in March of the 35th year of the reign of King
Mu (634). The pond was restored in 1965-1967 in about 1/3
of its original size.
In fact, the tradition of making ponds by palaces
in Baekje began in the Hanseong Era. However, no ponds from
the Hanseon Era have been found as yet.
On the other hand, Gongsan Castle, the palace
from the Ungjin Era, was discovered with a pond by which seems to
be the major building site. This pond in Gongsan Castle is
a round pond that is narrow on the bottom and widens around the
surface. It is 7.3m in diameter by the surface, 4.8m in diameter
on the bottom, and 3m in depth. This shows that the tradition
of making ponds by palaces in Baekje is very old. However,
other ponds from the Baekje Empire seem to have something similar
to Mt. Samsin of Gungnamji.